Rye n Injun Bread

230b5511e169e93a647d9c31173ade32 “Ma was busy all day long [..] she baked salt rising bread and rye’n’Injun bread”-pg 62 Little House in the Big Woods

If anyone is a returning reader they understand my love of carbs based off my salt rising bread post. I decided to celebrate my upcoming birthday with making Rye n Injun bread! Check out my Instagram feed for my results.  As I’m writing this before I take the photos you could see me crying on the floor or stuffing my face.  Birthday gamble if you will. The recipe below comes out of the Little House Cookbook.  The word ‘injun’ I don’t approve of in any way in 2017 which caused me to do a little surface research. Apparently injun bread was originally made with equal parts rye flour, corn meal and wheat flours.  The injun in the title refers to corn meal as Puritans would have needed to get out of their European sole dependency for wheat flours in the New World. Boston Brown Bread is said to have evolved from this earlier version. The Ingalls family origins in New England may have brought the recipe to the Big Woods. The long steaming time would have allowed Ma to bake this bread slowly on the Sabbath as she could do all the prep work the day before allowed to steam/bake during the day. Pair this with some salt pork beans and you have dinner!

1 1/2 c. corn meal
1 1/2 c. rye flour
2 tsp. baking soda
1 stp salt
2 eggs
3/4 c. molasses
1 c. buttermilk

In a large bowl, mix flours, baking soda and salt. In a separate bowl, mix eggs, molasses and buttermilk. Pour liquid ingredients into dry ingredients and stir until well mixed. Do not beat. Grease a 9×13″ pan. Put mixture in pan. Fill another 9×13″ pan with water and put on bottom rack of oven. Preheat oven to 200 degrees. Bake at 200 degrees for 3-4 hours. Cut into 16 pieces. Serve hot or cold. Great with butter and/or honey. Makes 16 servings.

Quilting in the Big Woods

quilt

” On Sundays Mary and Laura must not run or shout or be noisy in their play. Mary could not sew on her nine-patch quilt, and Laura could not knit on the tiny mittens she was making for Baby Carrie.” pg. 84

I loved the idea of making a quilt by hand. I think there was something nostalgic about sitting down with needle & thread creating a blanket to be wrapped in during a raining day. There was classmate in elementary school that spent her recess silently sewing in the corner and agreed to teach me.  I think I lasted about three days before the call of kickball sang like the competitive siren she is.  It was 20 years later that I attempted to  quilt again. The blanket was simple squares patched together using a handheld sewing machine. The kind of sewer sold late night on TV. The patches were all Hogwarts fabric as my youngest brother was making his through the Harry Potter series  for the first time and the idea of him reading the book late at night in bed wrapped in a Hogwarts blanket made my heart sing. My siblings are all pretty competitive regarding getting the BEST Christmas present for one another. I was going to “win” this year!  He still has the blanket to this day and it’s my favorite still. I’ve made a few baby blankets, simple lap blankets and wedding gifts since then but the first always sticks out in your mind. The joy of completing that project was a fabric high that has led to an addiction to purchasing cute/awesome/hip/soul inspiring fabrics to this day. So many projects await on the horizon…

While I will drink sugar free Red Bull till my eyes bulge and try to complete a project within a few days, the Ingles would quietly work in their quilts at night when all the chores were done. To have something like a blanket be utilitarian first and decorative second is a different mind sight to the craft. That blanket isn’t tying the room décor together it’s providing warmth during the Wisconsin winter. The books constantly refer to Ma’s scrap bag. Every piece of fabric was recycled. A dress could be reimagined into a blanket or apron. Nothing was left to waste.  The more I dig into the household history of the series the more I start looking around my house and realize how thin pantries would be if I had to complete by hand.

Instead of my simple ramblings regarding past quilts and work ethic i’ll leave you with an essay on the basic history of the quilt. Julie Johnson wrote a fantastic article outlining the history of quilting through the Emporia State University’s Great Plain’s Studies page.

“Random House Dictionary defines a quilt as “a coverlet for a bed, made of two layers of fabric with some soft substance, as wool or down, between them and stitched in patterns or tufted through all thicknesses in order to prevent the filling from shifting.”

The word quilt comes from the Latin culcita meaning a stuffed sack, but it came into the English language from the French word cuilte.

The origins of quilting remain unknown, but historians do know that quilting, piecing, and applique were used for clothing and furnishings in diverse parts of the world in early times. The earliest known quilted garment is on the carved ivory figure of a Pharaoh of the Egyptian First Dynasty about 3400 B.C. In 1924 archaeologists discovered a quilted floor covering in Mongolia. They estimated that it dates from somewhere between the first century B.C. to the second century A.D. There are also numerous references to quilts in literature and also inventories of estates.

Crusaders brought quilting to Europe from the Middle East in the late 11th century. Quilted garments were popular in the Middle Ages. Knights wore them under their armor for comfort. They also used quilted garments to protect the metal armor from the elements (rain, snow, sun).

The earliest known surviving bed quilt is one from Sicily from the end of the fourteenth century. It is made of linen and padded with wool. The blocks across the center are scenes from the legend of Tristan. The quilt is 122″ by 106″ and is in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.

When settlers arrived in the new world, they of course brought with them much of the cultural heritage from Europe. Although it is not known if they brought quilts with them, it is assumed that they brought the art of quilting with them. The first reference to quilts in America is at the end of the seventeenth century in the listing of a household inventory of a Salem, Massachusetts sea captain. None of the early colonial quilts survive. This makes sense when you consider that for the most part in the early colonial days, quilts were made from fabric that was salvaged from its previous use. The earliest surviving American pieced quilt is the Saltonstall quilt from 1704. Historians were able to date the Saltonstall quilt in an unusual way. At one time a common technique for quilting was to cut the quilt pieces out of paper and piece them together before starting in on the fabric. This was done in the Saltonstall quilt and the paper pieced quilt was used as an inner lining for the quilt. As the outer fabric wore out, the date on a newspaper came into view, thus giving historians an accurate idea of when the quilt was done.

In the nineteenth century quilt-making flourished especially in the period between 1825 and 1875. As the original colonists had brought quilting from the old world, the settlers who began moving west in the nineteenth century brought quilting with them. Eventually quilting came to the Great Plains. Quilting was a craft that adapted well to the Great Plains and quilts became an important asset to settlers on the plains. Not only could they be used on beds, they were also useful as covers for doors and windows and as floor mats for the children to play on. In many cases they were also used as currency to pay bills. Although some women continued to use remnants from clothes to piece their quilts, most learned to take advantage of the wide variety of colorful calicos to create works of art.

The wide open spaces and relative isolation of the Great Plains also made the idea of the “quilting bee” attractive. At a quilting bee women from the area would bring quilt tops that were already pieced and work together to quilt the top. The quilting bee afforded plains women a chance to socialize. Often a quilting bee would be a full day affair with lunch served to the women who came to help and dinner for all the families. Sometimes there would be a dance in the evening. One of the happier functions of the quilting bee was to help provide young women with quilts for their hope chests.

Because quilts provide protection from the elements, quilt-making is an art or skill that has never ceased to exist. As a work of art, they are easy to move around and many people can find satisfaction in the use of different colors and different fabrics. The usefulness of quilts has also contributed to their continued existence. Their advantages include increased warmth, greater strength, and the recycling of existing materials.

We are currently in a period of renewed interest in quilts and quilt-making. In many cases quilts have become objects on display in museums. The Spencer Art Museum on the campus of the University of Kansas has an impressive collection of quilts and in the summer of 1997 the University of Nebraska at Lincoln received a donation of 950 quilts from Ardis and Robert James. The quilts date from 1750 to 1990. The spring 1990 issue of Kansas History includes four articles on quilts and quilt-making.”

https://www.emporia.edu/cgps/tales/quilte~1.html

  • Cooper, Patricia and Bufer, Norma Bradley. THE QUILTERS: WOMEN AND DOMESTIC ART–AN ORAL HISTORY, Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1978.
  • Hall, Carrie A. and Kretsinger, Rose. THE ROMANCE OF THE PATCHWORK QUILT. Caldwell, Idaho: Bonanza Books, 1935.
  • Khin, Yvonne,
  • THE COLLECTORS DICTIONARY OF QUILT NAMES & PATTERNS. Washington, D.C., Acropolis Books Ltd, 1988.
  • Orlofsky, Patsy and Myron. QUILTS IN AMERICA. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974.
  • Rogers, Josephine. THE 7-DAY QUILT. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1979.
  • Sommer, Elyse. A PATCHWORK, APPLIQUE, AND QUILTING PRIMER. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Company, 1975.
  • Wilson, Erica. QUILTS OF AMERICA. New York: Oxmoor House, Inc., 1979.

Salt Rising Bread

Fresh Bread day is the

“Ma was busy all day long, cooking good things for Christmas. She baked salt rising bread…” pg. 62

There is no quicker way into my heart then fresh baked bread. My husband used to make me dinner when we were courting and while it was typical University fare it was his fresh baked bread that won me over each time. Crunch to the crust and a soft interior…throw a sunbeam in there,  rereading the Big Woods and I’m set.  Years later this love turned into buying two loaves; one for dinner and one to eat on the back porch slowly while reading in said sunbeam with a glass of white wine.

For someone that finds proofing detailed I can’t imagine not having access to yeast for our dinner loaves. Since not having bread at the dinner table isn’t an option, clearly my ancestors, baking pioneers emerged using natural fermentation. Heat and time sufficed for the general store assistance.  Instead they used long term warmth and natural bacteria.

Salt rising bread has maintained popularity in the Appalachian states to this day. A modern generation of bakers are continuing this tradition. Susan Ray Brown at Rising Creek Bakery in Pennsylvania specializes in salt rising bread.  Her website saltrisingbread.net is a fantastic source of history and recipes. I’ve been combing through her pages reading the  stories she’s compiled as well as recipe variations. I’ll be trying a recipe this weekend while I’m pre-purchasing her book off Amazon.  She shared the below recipe on her website that comes from a baker in Pennsylvania that has been baking salt rising bread for over 80 years.  Look for her book this June at your local bookstore.

“3 tsp. cornmeal, 1 tsp flour, 1/8 tsp baking soda, 1/2 cup scalded milk

Pour milk onto dry ingredients and stir. Keep warm overnight until foamy. After “raisin” has foamed and has a “rotten cheese” smell, in a medium sized bowl, add 2 cups of warm water to mixture, then enough flour (about 1 ½ cup) to make like a thin pancake batter.  Stir and let rise again until becomes foamy.  This usually takes about 2 hours. Next, add one cup of warm water for each loaf of bread you want to make, up to 6 loaves (e.g. six cups of water makes six loaves of bread).   Add enough flour (20 cups for 6 loaves, or about one 5 pound bag of flour + 1/3 bag).  Form into loaves; grease tops of loaves.   Let rise in greased pans for several hours, maybe 2-6 hours. Bake at 300 F for 30 to 45 minutes,  or until loaves sound hollow when tapped.”

http://saltrisingbread.net/

http://www.amazon.com/Salt-Rising-Bread-Heartfelt-Appalachian/dp/1943366039?ie=UTF8&keywords=salt%20rising%20bread&qid=1453773918&ref_=sr_1_1&s=books&sr=1-1

The Barry School

cabin-1081733_1920I’m not entirely sure what short story wronged me in the past that has my hair on end when I encounter a book of short stories. Finding out A Little House Sampler was a collection of articles between Rose Wilder Lane and Laura Ingalls Wilder originally had me expressing sighs all too audible in the library. It’s the editor William T. Anderson that assisted my Eeyore like state into couch cuddles with a cup of tea. I would suggest anyone reads this book post Laura biography not simply the series. There are some fantastic articles that fill in some of the gaps between Little House books and some of the timeline merges with more imagery. My favorite thus far is “A Bouquet of Wild Flowers” thanks to Laura’s memories of the Barry School she attended in the Big Woods.

William T. Anderson’s introductions are crucial in some articles including this one. Without preempting the timelines and history the average reader could be lost if their only biography of Laura was gleaned from her children books. Not anyone reading this blog obviously. Since anyone reading a blog on Laura Ingalls Wilder probably has read more biographies then her/his friends and family want to hear about. The except below shows off William T. Anderson’s ability to weave history through memory.

“The log house near Pepin once again sheltered the Ingalls family on their return to Wisconsin 1871. This was the home place Laura lovingly wrote about in Little House in the Big Woods. The childhood setting filled her memory with visions of panthers, wild deer in the woods, lush, wooded hills, and the coziness of the snug cabin occupied by Pa, Ma and the girls. 

The Barry Corner schoolhouse down the road from Pa’s cabin first sparked Laura’s lifelong fascination with reading and writing words. Mary was six years old when she proudly trotted down the road to school, leaving Laura bereft. The school records indicate that Laura Ingalls was a visitor to Anna Barry’s classes. When she was five, Laura started to attend school regularly. 

In 1917, when she was a regular writer for the Missouri Ruralist, Laura was reminded of her school days in the Big Woods. Almanzo’s proffered bouquet of Sweet Williams from the Rocky Ridge woods brought memories of the little school among the leafy trees. And as she want to do, Laura wrought memories into words and shared them with her readers. “A Bouquet of Wild Flowers” appeared in the July 20, 1917 edition of the Ruralist. ” pg. 15

Wilder, Laura Ingalls, Rose Wilder Lane, and William Anderson. A Little House Sampler. Lincoln: U of Nebraska, 1988. Print.

Wisconsin Timeline

“Once upon a time, sixty years ago, a little girl lived in the Big Woods of Wisconsin, in a little grey house made of logs.” pg. 1

February 1, 1860- Charles Ingalls marries Caroline Quiner in Concord Wisconsin

January 10, 1865- Mary Amelia Ingalls born in Wisconsin

February 7, 1867- Laura Elizabeth Ingalls born in Wisconsin.

April 28, 1868- Charles Ingalls sells land in Wisconsin.

May 28, 1868- Charles Ingalls buys land in Missouri.

August 6, 1869- Charles Ingalls signs power of attorney, Chariton County, Missouir

February 25, 1870- Charles Ingalls approves sale of Missouri land, Montgomery County, Kansas

August 3, 1870- Caroline Celestia Ingalls born in Kansas

May 30, 1871- Charles Ingalls revokes power of attorney, Durand, Wisconsin

October 21, 1871- Laura and Mary attend Berry school, Pepin Township, Wisconsin

October 28, 1873-Charles and Caroline Ingalls sell land in Wisconsin

 

Zochert, Donald. Laura: The Life of Laura Ingalls Wilder. Chicago: H. Regnery, 1976. Print.

From England to Wisconsin

mill

“So far as the little girl could see, there was only the one little house where she lived with her father and mother, and her sister Mary and baby sister Carrie.” pg. 2

We are introduced to the Ingalls family in the isolated Big Woods of Wisconsin.  We immediately picture a frontier family, isolated but independent.  So how did Charles Ingalls find himself in the Big Woods of Wisconsin? Given the time period and immigration where did the Ingalls originally call home? Charles Burleigh and Walter Renton Ingalls did some amazing research to trace the family back to Massachusetts and further to it’s  English starting point. Charles’ line in America descended from Edmund Ingalls who immigrated in 1628 to Salem, Massachusetts with his brother Francis.

The family name Ingalls originally dates back to 1384 in Lincolnshire, England with scattered references.  Edmund was born in 1598 and was in a comfortable enough position to finance his own trip to the new world in 1628.  Edmond and Francis set out with Governor John Endicott’s company on the Abigail (ship).

I personally love that in tracing history it’s usually the negative space that speaks volumes. For instance, researchers do not have a passenger list for the Abigail. However the next ship did not land until June 30th 1629 and manuscripts found in Saugus (Lynn), Mass list Edmund and Francis Ingalls.  Further how do we know Edmund and Francis finance their trip? The brothers jointly had 120 acres in Massachusetts. The company only gave 10 acres to passengers but those that could finance their own passage received an additional 50 acres.

Edmund upon landing in Salem already displayed the wandering foot that would plague Charles years later. Edmund and Francis moved from Salem to Saugus (later named Lynn). This move was most likely in reaction to Governor Endicott’s belief in micromanaging the settlement ‘s safety as well has daily habits.

The settlement of Saugus would still be in the Salem jurisdiction but with a bit more breathing room. This area was within the Pawtucket Tribe’s traditional lands and by all accounts Edmund and Francis found a balance with the tribe. This balance would have been necessary as the brothers were technically squatters from the viewpoint of the English. It’s not until 1638 that the authority of the Courts recognized the area’s allotments. Francis began a tannery while Edmund was a brewer in addition to farming. Given the hardship of immigrating at this time we can assume Francis and Edmund followed similar frontier survival as their neighbors. The area was planted with apples and pears for cider, flax for spinning/weaving and salt could be trapped from the ocean air. Building a home was incredibly difficult but would have been aided by the environment. This frontier was teaming with pristine soil, fish and game.  Edmund’s heirs would follow in his footsteps and be degrees began to branch out with their families. From Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Quebec, Illinois and finally to Wisconsin where we meet a young girl in the Big Woods.

I’ve connected Edmund to Charles Ingalls following father to son below until we finish with Laura.

Edmond Ingalls 1598-1648. He married Ann Ingalls in England, immigrated to the colonies in 1628. Died while traveling to Boston due to a faulty bridge in 1648; his heirs would sue the town and win damages for his death. His 7th child Henry leads the line down to Charles Ingalls.

Henry Ingalls 1626-1716. Henry married Mary Osgood and moved from Lynn to Ipswich and eventually to Andover, Massachusetts. He held office in his town as well as became a freeman in 1673.

Samuel Ingalls 1654-1733. Samuel married Sarah Hendrick and lived in Andover, Massachusetts. The records indicate he was a sergeant in the militia.

Samuel Ingalls 1683-1760. He married Mary Watts and was a blacksmith in Chester, New Hampshire. He was captain of the militia, selectman and a clerk.

Timothy Ingalls 1720 –  .  I have been unable to locate records in regards to his wife but it appears he was a trader in Chester, New Hampshire.

Jonathan Ingalls 1750-1834. He married Martha J. Locke and lived in Bridgewater, New Hampshire.

Samuel Ingalls 1771-1841. He married Margaret Delano and lived in Dunham, Quebec and later western New York after 1818. He was a published writer.

Lansford Ingalls 1812-1896. He married Laura Colby and they would move from Quebec, New York, Illinois and finally to Wisconsin. Lansford and Laura would be introduced as Grandma and Grandpa to readers during sugar snows and jigging.

Charles P. Ingalls 1836-1902. He married Caroline Quiner. Charles would move from New York, Illinois and meet Caroline in Wisconsin. He would make several moves during his life that his daughter would chronicle. Some migrations were combined and some were left out altogether but Charles eventually finished his moving days in DeSmet, South Dakota.

Laura Ingalls Wilder 1867-1957. Laura married Almanzo Wilder and had a daughter Rose. Her travels would include Wisconsin, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa, South Dakota, Florida and Missouri. She would eventually reside in Mansfield, Missouri where she began her children’s series.

Ingalls, Walter Renton. The Ingalls Family in England and America. Boxford, MA: W.R. Ingalls, 1930. Print.

Burleigh, Charles. The Genealogy and History of the Ingalls Family in America: Giving the Descendants of Edmund Ingalls Who Settled at Lynn, Mass. in 1629. Malden, MASS: Geo. E. Dunbar, 1903. Print.

Christmas Candy in the Big Woods

maple-syrup-1169896_1920

“One morning she boiled molasses and sugar together until they made a thick syrup…” pg. 63

Leading up to Christmas Ma is in full swing. Instead of resting on her fall harvest laurels she’s diving in again baking cookies, pies and Christmas Day candy.  The amount of work that Ma put into creating these holidays though is astounding when you consider the washing, sewing, meal planning still needed to happen throughout the holidays and Mary and Laura were too young to help in any real capacity.

Reading about all the holiday goodies always brings me back to childhood baking with my own “Ma”. But who still makes their own Christmas candy?  I need to up my game. Also, if I only ate candy when I was the one making it I’m pretty sure I would be about ten pounds lighter. I was listening to Michael Pollan comment on this once in using the french fry as his example “Try making French fries at home. It’s a lot of work and it’s a big mess. And you won’t do it more than once a month, which is probably about how often you should eat French fries.”  One recipe I’m willing to try this month in the spirit of Little House in the Big Woods is Martin Picard’s maple taffy.  Flipping through Au Pied de Cochon Sugar Shack: maple syrup I found a recipe for maple taffy that anyone currently with snow should try this weekend. Depending on the outcome of my first batch perhaps this can be a new Christmas tradition.

Ingredients

500 ml maple syrup

In a saucepan over medium high heat, cook the syrup until it reaches 114.5C. When the syrup reaches the specified temperature, remove the saucepan from the heath. The taffy will stop bubbling and reduce in volume. Spray the foam with cold water until it disappears completely. Brush the sides of the saucepan with a wet brush to prevent any crystallization of the syrup. Pour the hot taffy onto snow. The taffy keeps for several months in the freezer or one month in the fridge.

Picard, Martin. Au Pied De Cochon Sugar Shack Maple Syrup. Montreal: Restaurant Au Pied De Cochon, 2012. Print.

Patience, Practice and Presence: How Michael Pollan Fell in Love With Cooking http://to.pbs.org/1Tx1FLi via @NewsHour